I recently tried to install the V8 R package on my Mac running Yosemite using install.packages("V8") only to run into this problem.

* installing *source* package 'V8' ...
** package 'V8' successfully unpacked and MD5 sums checked
Package libv8 was not found in the pkg-config search path.
Perhaps you should add the directory containing 'libv8.pc'
to the PKG_CONFIG_PATH environment variable
No package 'libv8' found
Using PKG_CFLAGS=-I/usr/local/opt/v8-315/include
Using PKG_LIBS=-L/usr/local/opt/v8-315/lib -lv8
------------------------- ANTICONF ERROR ---------------------------
Configuration failed because libv8 was not found. Try installing:
 * deb: libv8-3.14-dev | libv8-dev (Debian, Ubuntu)
 * rpm: v8-devel (Fedora, EPEL)
 * brew: v8-315 (OSX) -- NOT regular v8! Tap from homebrew/versions
 * csw: libv8_dev (Solaris)
If libv8 is already installed, check that 'pkg-config' is in your
PATH and PKG_CONFIG_PATH contains a libv8.pc file. If pkg-config
is unavailable you can set INCLUDE_DIR and LIB_DIR manually via:
R CMD INSTALL --configure-vars='INCLUDE_DIR=... LIB_DIR=...'
ERROR: configuration failed for package 'V8'
* removing '/usr/local/lib/R/3.2/site-library/V8'

The problem was a missing v8 library. You can get this from homebrew, but you need to make sure you specifically get the v8-315 library. It tells you this in the error message:

brew: v8-315 (OSX) – NOT regular v8! Tap from homebrew/versions

To do this, you use the following commands:

brew tap homebrew/versions
brew install v8-315

Once this is installed, you can try install.packages("V8") again and it should work.

If you already have the V8 library installed through brew then it will not automatically link the v8-315 library. This could cause problems and so it would be wise to actually unlink it using:

brew unlink v8

Then run

brew link v8-315